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Caamano Island ~ Cypress Island Origin Washington  Geographic Names

Caamano Island, see Camano Island.

Cactus Islands, north of Spieden Island in San Juan County. They seem to be first named on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Cain, in Skagit County, see Kane.
California Mountains, see Cascade Mountains.

Calispell, a town in the southwest part of Pend Oreille County. In the same county there are a Calispell Lake and Creek. Kalispel is the name of the tribe of Indians popularly known as Pend d'Oreilles or "Ear Drops."

Callepuya River, near Vancouver in Clarke County. The Narrative of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, Volume IV., pages 326, says: "We entered the Callepuya for the purpose of avoiding the current of the river [Columbia]. At this time of the year this branch forms an extensive range of lakes, which reaches to within a mile of Vancouver." It is probably the present Lake River.

Calvert, in Spokane County. See Amber.

Camano Island, east of Whidbey Island, in Island County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted it as "McDonough's Island" in honor of Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough of Lake Champlain fame during the War of 1812. His flagship was the Saratoga and so Wilkes changed the name of Port Gardner to "Saratoga Passage." This last name has remained, but the island's name was changed to Camano on the British Admiralty Chart, Kellett, 1847. Kellett sought to place a number of Spanish names. The Spanish Captain Elisa had honored Don Jacinto Caamano in 1790 by placing the name "Boca de Caamano" where the English Captain George Vancouver in 1791 placed the beginning of Admiralty Inlet, near the present Port Townsend. Kellett lifted the Spanish name clear over Whidbey Island and planted it permanently on Camano Island. There is a town on the island by the same name and the southern end of the island is called Camano Head from which juts Allen Point.

Camas, a town in Clarke County. It is an old settlement and was formerly known as La Camas. The name is taken from that of a favorite food of the western Indians, Camassia esculenta, and other species related to the hyacinth. The word was derived from the Nootka Indian word chamass, meaning "fruit" or "sweet." It was adopted into the Chinook Jargon as camas, kamass, lacamass and lakamass. For a time the town in Clarke County was known as La Camas, but on recent charts and in post office usage the name is Camas. Evidently the locality of Camas was a place where the Indians gathered supplies of the sweetish bulbs of the blue-flowered "Lakamass."

Camas Prairie, in Klickitat County north of Fulda and west of Conboy Lake. On August 12, 1853, the railroad surveyors in command of Captain (later General) George B. McClellan camped on the prairie and called it Tahk Prairie. The United States land office map of 1897 shows the name Camas Prairie.

Camp Washington. This has been called the "First Capital" because it was the first camping place of Governor Stevens and party within the present limits of the State of Washington. It is located at the forks of Coulee Creek in Spokane County. The Washington State Historical Society in 1908 located a marker for this camp on Four Mound Prairie, which is about five miles distant from the true site.

Canal de Haro, see Haro Strait.
Canel River, see Fish River.

Canoe Island, in Upright Channel, between Shaw and Lopez Islands, in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1860.

Canton, a town on Green River in King County. It was named by the Northern Pacific Railway Company. (Page Lumber Company, Eagle Gorge, in Names MSS., Letter 56.)

Canyon, a town in Whitman County. It was named because of its being at a canyon eight miles long and five hundred feet deep. (Postmaster, in Names- MSS., Letter 57.)

Cape Alava, on westernmost shore of Clallam County. It is farthest west of any portion of the United States mainland south of Alaska. Manuel Quimper placed it on the Spanish chart as "Punta de Hijosa" and the adjacent indentation he called "Boca de Alava." The British Chart, Kellett, 1817, called it Port Alava, and the northern projection is there shown as Cape Flattery, the one which American charts show as Cape Flattery being shown as "Cape Classet." Recent charts show the larger point as Cape Alava and nearby are shown Flattery Rocks, indicating the former confusion of names. Cape Broughton, see Grays Point.

Cape Classet, see Cape Flattery.

Cape Disappointment. This is one of the oldest geographical names in Washington. On August 17, 1775, Bruno Heceta, the Spanish explorer, found a bay with indications of a river. The bay he called "Bahia de la Asuncion," the northern cape he called "San Roque" and the southern, "Cabo Frondoso." Later, the Spaniards called the bay "Ensenada de Heceta" in honor of its discoverer, John Meares, an English explorer, knew of the Spanish charts and on Sunday, July 6, 1788, he rounded the cape and looked for the river which was surmised by the Spaniards. Being unsuccessful, he changed the name of San Roque to Cape Disappointment and the bay he called "Deception Bay.' Four years later the Columbia River was discovered and named, but the name of Cape Disappointment has remained. Some effort was made to give it the name of "Cape Hancock."

Cape Flattery, in Clallam County, at the southern entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the northwestern extremity of the state of Washington. The name originated with the English explorer, Captain James Cook, who on Sunday, March 22, 1778, made the following entry in his journal: "Between this island or rock, and the northern extreme of the land, there appeared to be a small opening which nattered us with the hopes of finding a harbor there. Those hopes lessened as we drew nearer; and, at last, we had some reason to think that the opening was closed by low land. On this account I called the point of land to the north of it Cape Flattery." One of Captain Cook's crew was George Vancouver, who, in 1792, came to the same coast in command of an expedition. He sought to identify Captain Cook's Cape Flattery, and finally placed it where it has since remained. Reference to the confusion of names has already been made under the item of Cape Alava. In the vicinity of the latter cape, government charts still show Flattery Rocks. Kellett, 1847, and other British charts show Cape Flattery in the place of Cape Alava, and the promontory now known as Cape Flattery is shown as Cape Classet. That name is supposed to be of Indian origin and is sometimes spelled Claaset or Klasset. Rev. Myron Eells is authority for the statement that Makah means "people who live on a point of land projecting into the sea," and Klasset means the same thing in another Indian language. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) George Davidson says that in 1852 he found the head chief of the Makahs bearing the name of Clisseet. (United States Coast Survey Report, 1858, page 414.) Captain Vancouver knew about the name of Cape Classet, but he concluded that Captain Cook intended the name of Cape Flattery for that place and so charted it. The Spanish name of "Cape Martinez" did not have much usage except on the Spanish charts.

Cape Foulweather, see Cape Shoalwater.

Cape George, the east cape of Port Discovery, in Jefferson County. The name appears first on the British Admiralty chart, Kellett, 1847. The explorer evidently intended this as added honor for Captain George Vancouver, who had named Port Discovery in 1792. At the same time, Kellett charted "Vancouver Point," on the west shore of Port Discovery. The last named point is now known as Carr's Point.

Cape Hancock, see Cape Disappointment.

Cape Horn, on the Columbia River, in the southwestern corner of Skamania County. The name of this prominent feature was mentioned in the journals of John Work of the Hudson's Bay Company as early as .1825 and 1826. (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V., pages 85 and 287, in the latter spelling it Cape Heron.) Rev. Gustavus Hines (Exploring Expedition to Oregon, 1851, page 153) says that the name arose from the great difficulty of navigating that part of the Columbia in canoes. Governor Isaac I. Stevens (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 111) says that Cape Horn Mountain would have to be tunneled unless a way could be found around it. A town in Skamania County has the name of Cape Horn. On the lower Columbia River, in Wahkiakum County, there is another Cape Horn (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 6152), and still another near the entrance to Hammersley's Inlet, Puget Sound. (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 6460.)

Cape Labelle Creek, in Okanogan County. Sometimes it is called Cape Bell Creek. Instead of "Cape" it should be Kate Labelle. It was named for an old Indian woman of that name, who was the first person known to have located on it. (Charles Clark, Aeneas, in Names MSS., Letter 288.)

Cape Martinez, see Cape Flattery.

Cape St. Mary, the southeast cape of Lopez Island in San Juan Island. George Davidson (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 562) says it was so named on the British Admiralty chart, and that a quarter of a mile outside the cape lies Kellett Ledge. The last name is in honor of the one who prepared earlier Admiralty charts. The United States Coast Survey chart of 1855 shows it as Johnson Point.

Cape San Roque, see Cape Disappointment.

Cape Shoalwater, the north cape at the entrance to Willapa Harbor, Pacific County. On a number of maps the cape is shown as Toke's Point, but on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 6100, Toke Point is shown to the eastward well within the harbor. In 1854, an Indian chief by the name of Toke lived in that vicinity, which gave rise to the use of that name. The name of Cape Shoalwater was given by the English explorer John Meares in July, 1788. In April, 1792, Captain George Vancouver tried to identify the cape named by Meares. Lewis and Clark saw the cape from the north side of Cape Disappointment in 1805 and gave it the name of "Point Lewis." The Indian name of the point is Quaht-sum. (United States Coast Survey Report, 1858, page 402.)

Capsize Island, see Willow Island.

Carbon River, in Pierce County. This river and its branch, South Prairie Creek, leading to the Puyallup River, was called the "Upthascap River" by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. About 1876 coal was discovered on the banks of the river, suggesting the name of Carbon River. That name was carried on up the river to the Mount Rainier glacier furnishing its source.

Carbonado, a town on the Carbon River in Pierce County. The name came from that of the river, which was named after the discovery of coal on its banks. (George Williams, in Names MSS., Letter 591.) Carley, a town on the north bank of the Columbia River in Benton County. It was named in honor of M. E. Carley, who settled there in 1904. (M. E. Carley in Names MSS., Letter 377.)

Carpenter Creek, in Whatcom County. It empties into Lake Whatcom. It was named on January 1, 1884, after William Carpenter. (Hugh Eldridge, Bellingham, in Names MSS., Letter 136.)

Carr Inlet, frequently shown as Carr's Inlet, is in Pierce County, between Fox and McNeil Islands and extending northward. The British Chart 1917, Inskip, 1846, shows the portion between the two islands as "Bruce Channel." The present name was given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Lieutenant Overton Carr, a member of his crew.

Carrs Point, on the western shore of Port Discovery in Jefferson County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, probably in honor of Lieutenant Overton Carr of the expedition. The British Admiralty Chart, Kellett, 1847, gave the name "Vancouver Point," which did not survive.

Carrell River, see Fish River.

Carrolls, a town on the Columbia River in Cowlitz County. It was formerly known as Carrollton, the name being changed on March 17, 1915. The name was in honor of Major Carroll, one of the first settlers. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 391.)

Carson, a town in Skamania County. The town derived its name from a creek of the same name. It is said that the name is a corruption from the name of Katsner. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 406.) A former name was "Ash," as Lewis and Clark there found the first ash timber of the West. The place is becoming gamous from the Carson Hot Springs. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)

Carter Point, on the southern extremity of Lummi Island, in Whatcom County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, probably in honor of William Carter, one of the petty officers of the expedition.

Cartys Island, see Dago Island.

Cascade Bay, on the east shore of East Sound, Orcas Island, in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859, and was suggested by the outlook of an elevated lake leaping over a bank. At present the name is being supplanted by Rosario, name of the post office there and the home of Mr. Robert Moran.

Cascade Mountains or Cascade Range, the chain of mountains running through Washington and Oregon. Probably the first attempt at a name for the range was by the Spaniard, Manuel Quimper, 1790, who roughly mapped it as "Sierra Madras de S. Antonio." In 1792, George Vancouver, the English explorer, gave names to a number of the most prominent peaks, but referred to the range as "snowy range," "ridge of snowy mountains," or "range of rugged mountains." Lewis and Clark, 1805-1806, mention the named peaks and frequently refer in general terms to the range of mountains. Lewis wrote: "The range of western mountains are covered with snow and Clarke wrote: "Western mountains covered with snow." (Thwaites, Original Journals of Lewis and Clark, Volume IV., pages 313 and 305-306.) "Western Mountains" is the nearest to a name for the range adopted by Lewis and Clark. John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, wrote in December, 1824: "a ridge of high mountains covered with snow." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., pages 213, 215.) David Douglas, the botanist, in writing his journal had great need of a name for those mountains, and he seems to have been the first one to use the name "Cascade." He refers again and again to the "Cascade Mountains" or "Cascade Range of Mountains." (Journal Kept by David Douglas, 1823-1827, pages 221-222, 252, 257, 342.) Douglas does not claim to have originated the name for the range, and earlier use of it may yet come to light. William A. Slacum's report, 1836-1837, says the mountains were sometimes called "Klannet range, from the Indians of that name." (Oregon Historical Quarterly, Volume XIII, page 200.) Hall J. Kelley, an early enthusiast on the Oregon Question, sometimes referred to as "The Boston Schoolmaster," sought, 1834-1839, to change the names of the great peaks by calling them after former presidents of the United States and to christen the range "President's Range." For a few years his scheme of names was followed in a few publications. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted the mountains as Cascade Range. That name, or Cascade Mountains, has continued in general use to the present time.

Cascade River, a tributary of the Skagit River at Marblemount, in Skagit County.

Cascades, obstruction in the Columbia River and a town on the bank nearby, in Skamania County. Lewis and Clark, 1805-1806, the first white men to see this geographical feature, used the word "cascades," but not as a name. The Upper Cascades they called "Great Shute." Alexander Ross, in his Oregon Settlers, writing as of 1810-1813, mentions the cascades a number of times, indicating the obstruction in the river. David Thompson, of the North-West Company of Montreal, on July 13, 1811, referred to "Rapids and Falls" and on July 27 to "Great Rapid." John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, on June 22, 1825, wrote: "Embarked at 3 o'clock and reached the Cascades at 1." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V., page 85.) David Douglas, the botanist, in his journal for 1826 uses the word often, but not always for the same locality. Rev. H. H. Spalding, writing from Fort Walla Walla on October 2, 1836, uses the words: "The Cascades or rapids." Later writers are quite uniform in the use of "Cascades" as a definite name.

Case Inlet or Case's Inlet, east of Hartstene Island and projecting northward, forming the boundary between Mason and Pierce Counties. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 18.41, in honor of Lieutenant A. L. Case, an officer of the expedition. One portion of the inlet is said to have borne the Indian name of Squakson.

Cashmere, a city in Chelan County. It was formerly known as "Mission" because of the establishment there of an Indian mission. In June, 1903, on the suggestion of Judge J. H. Chase, the name was changed to honor the beautiful and productive Vale of Cashmere in India. (A. Manson, in Names MSS., Letter 300.)

Castle Island, off the southeast shore of Lopez Island, just north of Colville Island, in San Juan County. It first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. In the United States Coast Survey Report, 1855, Chart 44, it is shown as "Old Hundred Island."

Castle Rock, a city in Cowlitz County. In 1853 William Huntington gave that name to a huge solid rock, 150 feet high, covering more than an acre and having the appearance of an old castle. The rock was on his government donation land claim. When a settlement and town developed there, it very naturally took the same name. (Mrs. E. B. Huntington, in Names MSS., Letter 158.) Lewis and Clark gave the name of "Beacon Rock" to a large rock in the lower Columbia River. It was later called Pillar Rock, and often goes also by the name of Castle Rock. This same name has also been given to a number of less important geographic features in the State.

Catapootle River, see Lewis River.

Cathcart, a town in Snohomish County, named in honor of Isaac Cathcart, a prominent lumberman who located there in early days.

Cathlamet, a city on the Columbia River, in Wahkiakum County. Lewis and Clark, 1805-1806, wrote the name "Cathlamah." Rev. Myron Eells says the word is evidently from the Indian word calamet, meaning "stone," and was given to the river because it has a stony bed along its whole course. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) Henry Ganett says the name is from the tribe of Indians known as Kathlamet. (Place Names in the United States.) The channel of the Columbia River north of Puget Sound is known as Cathlamet Channel. Dr. W. Fraser Tolmie, of the Hudson's Bay Company, writes in 1833 of having arrived at Kahelamit village. (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., page 232.)

Cathlapootle River, see Lewis River.

Catlin, a town in Cowlitz County, named in honor of the pioneer, Charles Catlin. (Tillicum Tales of Thurston County, page 228.) Others believe the honor was for Seth Catlin, pioneer settler and legislator.

Cattle Point, southeastern point of San Juan Island, in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. It is probable that the Hudson's Bay Company landed cattle there prior to the dispute over possession of those islands.

Cave Creek, in Klickitat County. J. K. Duncan, topographer with Captain McClellan of the Pacific Railroad surveying party of 1853, reported at length about the creek that flowed partly underground through the lava caves. He also refers to the mouse legends of the Indians giving rise to the name of Hoolhoolse, from the Indian word hoolhool, meaning "mouse." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 207.)

Cayote, once a post office in Garfield County, named in September, 1882, while John P. King was postmaster. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 549.)

Cecil Creek, in Okanogan County, named after Cecil, a half-breed, who owned an allotment at the mouth of the creek. (Postmaster Loomis, in Names MSS., Letter 264.)

Cedar Falls, Lake and River, all in King County, including a post office by the name of Cedar Falls. Governor Isaac I. Stevens in the railroad surveys of 1853 reported that the lake and falls had the Indian name of Nook-noo. {Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 119 and 194.) At first the reports showed the Nook-noon flowing into the Duwamish, and thence into Elliott Bay at Seattle. In a supplementary report by A. W. Tinkham in January, 1854, "Cedar Creek" is shown flowing into Lake Washington. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XL, Part II, Chart 3.) The region has gained importance in recent years as being the source of water, light and power for the city of Seattle. Douglas, the botanist, reported another Cedar River near the Columbia River, above Kettle Falls. (Journal Kept by David Douglas, 1823-1827, page 203.)

Cedarville, a town in Whatcom County, named after the Cedarville Shingle Company. (Postmaster Lawrence, in Names MSS., Letter 272.)

Cement City, a townsite by that name was platted in Skagit County in July, 1905. (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 244. Recent editions of the Postal Guide do not show such an office at present.

Cementville, on the Columbia River in Pacific County. Machinery was installed there by a man named Hopkins for the making of cement. (H. B. Settem, Knappton, in Names MSS., Letter 93.)

Center, a post office in Jefferson County, so named because it was supposed to be near the center of the county. (Thomas S. Ambrose, in Names MSS., Letter 303.)

Center Reef, between Spieden and Henry Islands, in San Juan County, in the center of Spieden Channel. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Centerville, a town in Klickitat County. The probable reason for the name is that it is located centrally in the lower part of the valley. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.) This name was also at one time used for the present Centralia in Lewis County.

Central Ferry, in Garfield County, changed its name in 1881 to Reform, while H. M. Jenkins was postmaster. It ceased to exist under either name. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 549.)

Centralia, a city in Lewis County. George Washington, a colored man, founded a village and called it "Centerville," in the early fifties. Confusion of mail resulted because a town near Goldendale in Eastern Washington bore the same name. When a replat was planned, David Fouts suggested the name of Centralia after the Illinois town in which he had formerly lived. Many deeds still read "according to the plat of Centerville, now Centralia." (Henry A. Dunckley, in Names MSS., Letter 54.)

Ceres, a town in Lewis County, named by the railway officials in honor of Ceres, Goddess of Grains, in recognition of the fertility of the soil. (Eugene Froenner, in Names MSS., Letter 149.)

Chablat River, see Hoh River.
Chachanucah, see Protection Island.

Chah-choo-sen Island, in Whatcom County. The island does not appear on recent charts. The Indian treaty, known as the Point Elliott Treaty, January 22, 1855, says: "and the island called Chah-choo-sen, situated in the Lummi River at the point of separation of the mouths emptying respectively into Bellingham Bay and the Gulf of Georgia."

Chambers Creek, at Steilacoom, Pierce County. It was named in honor of Thomas M. Chambers, who built there the first mill in Pierce County. He was a pioneer of the year 1846, and settled with others of his family near Olympia. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXI., page 8.) The British chart bearing the name of Inskip, 1846, shows the creek with the name "Chudley."

Chambers Lake and Prairie, in Thurston County. The names came from David J. and Andrew J. Chambers, sons of Thomas M. Chambers, all of whom came to Oregon in 1845 and to Puget Sound in 1846. The father has been mentioned in connection with the name of Chambers Creek. The two sons settled near the lake and the two prairies near Olympia which have since borne their name. Andrew Chambers lived there longest, and probably was most responsible for the perpetuation of the name. (H. C. McElroy, in Names MSS., Letter 45.)

Chamokane Creek, a tributary of the Spokane River, in Stevens County. The name has been variously spelled. Wilkes says it is an Indian word meaning "the plain of springs" from the fact that the streams sink in the earth and in passing underground a few miles burst forth again in springs. (Wilkes Expedition, 1841, Volume IV., pages 483.) This creek and the prairie through which it flows became well known as the location of the Indian mission established in 1838 by Elkanah Walker and Cushing Eells.

Charles Island, off the southern shore of Lopez Island, in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Charles Point, west cape of Prevost Harbor, Stuart Island, in San Juan County. The name is first shown on the British Admiralty Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1859. Captain Richards here sought to confer full and lasting honors on Captain James Charles Prevost of her Majesty's ship Satellite. He named the harbor Prevost, the west cape Charles and the adjacent island James.

Charleston, a town in Kitsap County adjoining the United States Navy Yard, Puget Sound. It was named in honor of the United States steamship Charleston on June 5, 1891. (Captain W. B. Seymore, in Names MSS., Letter 3.) J. B. Chapman located a townsite on the upper Chehalis, calling it Charleston. It never had any real existence. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXI., page 47.)

Charley Creek. There are two creeks with this name. One in Clallam County and was named for Charles Welker, the first homesteader there. (Postmaster at Clallam Bay, in Names MSS., Letter 265.) The other is a tributary of Green River at Eagle Gorge, and was probably named on account of Charley Settler having a homestead at its mouth. (Page Lumber Company, Eagle Gorge, in Names MSS., Letter 56.)

Charley Fork, an upper tributary of Asotin Creek, in Asotin County. Charles Lyon settled at the mouth of the creek and it was named in his honor in 1870. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 650.)

Chatham Mountain, see Mount Chatham.
Chattaroy, a post office in Spokane County.
Chaudieres, see Kettle Falls.
Chauncys Island, see Lopez Island.

Chee-al-koh, a bluff on the Tulalip Indian Reservation, near Priest Point. The meaning of the Indian name is unknown. (Charles M. Buchanan, in Names MSS., Letter 155.)

Chehalis City and River, The river rises in Pacific County and flows through Lewis, Thurston and Grays Harbor Counties into Grays Harbor. George Gibbs, an early authority, says the word means "sand" and was at first applied to a single Indian village at the entrance of Grays Harbor. (Handbook of American Indians, Volume I., page 241.) Rev. Myron Eells gives the same definition, and says that the early settlers gave the same name to the river and the upper Indian tribes, though originally neither was called by that name. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) The name was spelled in a great variety of ways by the early explorers and writers. The city that now bears the name was laid off on the donation claim of S. S. Saunders and wife in 1873, and was first called "Saundersville." In the winter of 1850 John Butler Chapman began a city on Grays Harbor under the name of Chehalis City. It failed, and he moved to Steilacoom. Grays Harbor County was until a few years ago known as Chehalis County. There is a Chehalis Indian Reservation in Thurston County.

Chelachie Creek and Prairie, in the northern part of Clarke County, near the town of Amboy. The Indian name was found and recorded by the railroad surveyors in 1853. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 378.)

Chelan. This is an Indian word to which two meanings have been given. Henry Gannett, of the United States Geological Survey, says it means "deep water." (Place Names in the United States.) John C. Wapato, grandson of Chief John Wapato, says he learned from his grandfather that the word means "land of bubbling water." (L. B. Sines, in Names MSS., Letter 360.) Probably the first time it was reduced to writing was by Alexander Ross, 1810-1813, and he showed its true Indian character by the spelling as follows: "passed a small but rapid stream, called by the native Tsill-ane, which descended over the rocks in white broken sheets." (Oregon Settlers, page 149.) The name has been given a wide geographic use. A long narrow lake extends from near the Columbia River for sixty miles back into the Cascade Mountains. For a long time it was said to be "bottomless" in depth. Its depth is now known to extend below sea level. As applied to this lake the name might well mean "deep water." The lake drains into the Columbia River through the swift Chelan River in which are the Chelan Falls, and at the southern end of the lake is the town of Chelan. Chelan Butte has a height of 3892 feet, and overlooking the deep waters is a rugged ridge known as Chelan Mountains. In 1899 a new county was planned to be known as Wenatchee. The law was approved on March 13 of that year, but the name of the new county had been changed to Chelan.

Chemakane, see Chamokane Creek.

Cheney, a city in Spokane County. As the railroad surveys passed that way the place became known as "Depot Springs." The early settlers wanted an academy or school. They renamed the place in honor of Benjamin P. Cheney of Boston, one of the originators of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and frankly told him of their educational ambitions. Correspondence led to his giving the sum of ten thousand dollars. An academy was begun. When the Territory attained statehood that academy evolved into one of the first State Normal Schools.

Chenoke, see Chinook.
Cherana River, see Cow Creek.

Chester, a town in Spokane County. Old settlers say that the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company named the place, but they do not know when or for whom. (W. H. Berkley, in Names MSS., Letter 470.)

Cheviot, in Kittitas County. The engineers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company imported for new stations the names of old cities in the East or in foreign lands. A vice-president of the company says that Cheviot was "a chance selection." (H. R. Williams, in Names MSS, Letter 589.)

Chewack Creek, see Methow River.

Chewelah, a town at the mouth of Chewelah Creek, a tributary of the Colville River in Stevens County. Rev. Myron Eells says Cha-we-lah means a small striped snake and "was applied to that place either because the snake abounded there or because of the serpentine appearance of the stream." (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) There is an Indian legend to the effect that an old Indian chief saw a snake reaching from east to west, from mountain to mountain, and so they called the place Chewalah. In the sixties a military post was placed there and the old Indian name was accepted. (J. W. Patterson, in Names MSS., Letter 259.) The creek has also received the same name on recent maps. Captain George B. McClellan of the railroad surveying expedition, 1853, camped on the stream and called it "Kitsemawhep." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 386.) Governor Stevens of that same expedition says the Indians on the Colville trail were Skecheramouse, a band of the Spokane. A form of the same word appears on the United States Land Office map of Washington, 1897, as "Chiel charle Mous Creek" for what we now know as Chewelah Creek.

Chewiliken Creek, a tributary of the Okanogan River in Okanogan County. It was named in honor of Chief Chewilican of a tribe in that vicinity. (T. S. Anglin, in Names MSS., Letter 263.)

Chickeeles Point, see Point Chehalis.

Chico, a town on Dyes Inlet in Kitsap County. It was named by B. S. Sparks in 1889 in honor of the Indian Chief Chico, who owned adjacent land. The Indian died in 1909 at the great age of 105 years. (Mrs. Nina A. Marx, in Names MSS., Letter 60.)

Chihalis Bay, see Grays Harbor.
Chiklisilkh, see Leadbetter Point.
Chilacoom, see Steilacoom.

Chiliwist Creek, a tributary of the Okanogan River at Olema. It was named in honor of Indian Charley Chiliwist, who formerly lived at the mouth of the creek. (E. Holzhauser, Olema, in Names MSS., Letter 298.)

Chimacum, a town on a creek of the same name in Jefferson County. The name is that of a small but brave tribe of Indians who lived between Port Townsend and Hood Canal. The tribe is now supposed to be almost extinct. The name is sometimes spelled Chimakum.

Chimikaine, see Chamakane.

China Creek, a tributary of the Columbia River at Evans in Stevens County. It was named in 1903 from the fact that Chinamen were using the water for placer mining, (W. O. Lee, Evans, in Names MSS., Letter 139.)

Chinom Point, on the east shore of Hood Canal in Kitsap County. On the charts of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, it is spelled "Tchinom."

Chinook. This name was used for a group of Indian tribes occupying the lower banks of the Columbia River. The word is said to come from Tsinuk, the Chehalis Indian name for the Chinook Indians. The Chinook Jargon, or trade language, was begun from the brief vocabulary recorded at Nootkka by Captain James Cook in 1778. The headquarters of the fur trade was removed to the Columbia River after the founding of Astoria in 1811. Many Chinook Indian words were added, and in that way it became known as the Chinook Jargon instead of the Nootka Jargon. The word, becoming familiar, was frequently .used for geographic names, some of which have persisted. On early charts there was shown an Indian village on the eastern shore of Port Discovery as Chinook. That name has disappeared. An early settlement on Baker Bay in Pacific County received and has retained the name Chinook. What is now known as Scarborro Hill was once called Chinook Hill. A small stream flowing into Baker Bay has been mapped a number of times as Chinook River, while others use Wappalooche as its name. James G. Swan says: "which would carry us down the Wappalooche, or Chinook River, to its mouth." (Northwest Coast, 1857, page 98.) Chinook Point mentioned by Swan as the headquarters of the once powerful tribe of Chinook Indians, was called "Point Komkkomle" in 1811 by David Thompson of the North-West Company of Montreal. Concomly was the famous one-eyed chief of the Chinooks in early Astoria days.

Chismil, see Fish River.
Chlayarnat, see Port Discovery.
Chockalilum, see Columbia River.

Christopher, a town in King County, named by the citizens in honor of Thomas Christopher, a pioneer in 1887. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 73.)

Chuckanut Bay, a part of Bellingham Bay in Whatcom County. It was named by Henry Roeder on December 1, 1852. It was supposed to be an old Indian name. (Hugh Eldridge, in Names MSS., Letter 136.) A valuable quarry of building stone would ordinarily have supported an independent community. As it is, it is counted a part of Bellingham. On the Spanish charts of Elisa, 1791, and Galiano and Valdes, 1792, the bay is shown as "Puerto del Socorro."

Chuh-chuh-sul-lay, the Indian name for Gedney Island, Snohomish County. (Charles M. Buchanan, in Names MSS., Letter 155.)

Clallam, the name of a once powerful Indian tribe, which name has developed into a number of geographic terms. Rev. Myron Eells believes that the word has developed from the Twana Indian name Do-skal-ob applied to the Clallam Indians and meaning "big brave nation." In the so-called Point-no-Point Treaty, January 26, 1855, Governor Stevens wrote the name "S'Klallam." (Indian Laws and Treaties, Volume II., page 674.) The Territorial law creating the county of that name, approved April 26, 1854, had the name written "Claim." Clallam Bay, off the Strait of Juan de Fuca, was called "Ensenada de Roxas," Quimper, 1790, and Galiano and Valdes, 1792. George Davidson says the Indian name of the bay was Kla-kla-wier. (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 524.) The present name was given to the bay on the British Admiralty Chart 1911, Kellett, 1847, but it was there spelled Callam. The same chart shows the west cape of Port Discovery as "Challam Point," which shows poor spelling of the same name for both places. The British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859, corrects the spelling to Clallam Point. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, had given this point the name of "North Bluff," but it did not persist. The same fate befell the Spanish name of 1790, "Punta de San Juan." (Manuel Quimper chart in United States Public Documents, Serial Number 1557.) At Clallam Bay a creek empties into the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which is called Clallam River.

Claquato, one of the early settlements in Lewis County. Lewis H. Davis in 1852 laid out a town and built a courthouse which he gave to Lewis County. (Hines, History of Washington, page 542.)

Clark Island, northeast of Orcas Island, in San Juan County, was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. This island and the nearby Barnes Island were named by the Spaniard Elisa, 191, "Islas de Aguays" after part of the long name of the Viceroy of Mexico. Wilkes sought to honor many heroes of the United States Navy in naming these islands of his "Navy Archipelago." The one here honored was probably Midshipman John Clark, who was killed in Perry's Battle of Lake Erie. Congress presented a sword to the nearest male relative. (E. S. Maclay's History of the Navy, Volume I., pages 515, 518, 519.)

Clark Point, on the northern end of Guemes Island in Skagit County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Levin Clark, captain of the top in one of the Wilkes crews.

Clark Fork River, in Pend Oreille County, was shown as "Saleesh" River on the map of David Thompson, 1811, of the North-West Company of Montreal. It was called "Clark's River" by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1805-1806, and is now mapped as a considerable tributary of the Columbia River under the name of Clark Fork River.

Clarke, a town in Lincoln County. It was named by the Post office Department about 1890 in honor of a prominent mining engineer of those days by the name of Clarke. He was also a pioneer of Lincoln County. (C. Miller, in Names MSS., Letter 268.)

Clarke County, oldest county in the State of Washington. It was named in honor of Captain Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806. The addition of the letter e to the name has given rise to much inquiry and discussion. The blunder is one of ignorance, but is probably now too deeply imbedded in law, literature and custom to be completely corrected. The question was ably discussed by Frederick V. Holman in his presidential address before the Oregon Historical Society, December 18, 1909. (Oregon Historical Quarterly, Volume XI., pages 3-6.) On August 20, 1845, Governor George Abernethy approved a law by the Provisional Legislature of the Territory of Oregon creating Vancouver District out of that part of Oregon lying north of the Columbia River. The same authority, on December 21, 1845, subdivided the vast area by creating the western portion into Lewis County. Vancouver District was then changed to Vancouver County. On September 3, 1849, the Oregon Territorial Legislature passed a law, Section 1 of which briefly enacted "That the name of the county of Vancouver be, and hereby is, changed to Clark. In the law as printed the name is in italics and is without the final e. Washington Territory was created by Act of Congress, dated March 2, 1853. The Oregon Territorial Legislature on January 3, 1854, passed an act to release Clark County from the payment of certain taxes due to the Territory of Oregon. This legal farewell used the name without the final e. The new Territory of Washington began the blunder at once. No law was passed changing the name, but the journals of the first legislative session, 1854, always referred to Clarke County. The first newspapers, such as the Columbian, Pioneer, and Pioneer and Democrat, all used the final e in Clarke County. Territorial laws on mentioning the name of this county used the final e. While attention has often been called to the blunder in late years no effort at legal correction has apparently been made.

Clarke Lake, a small lake near Bissell in Stevens County. It was named in honor of James Clarke, who, in 1888, had it surveyed. (Postmaster, Bissell, in Names MSS., Letter 105.)

Clarkston, a town in Asotin County, on the opposite bank of the Snake River from Lewiston, Idaho. It is named in honor of Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1803-1806. It is a fine honor for the two leaders of that great expedition to have their names thus borne by thriving cities connected by an interstate bridge. Clarkston was begun with the name of "Concord," as some of the promoters of the irrigation plans had their homes in Concord, Massachusetts. By petition of the citizens the name was changed to Clarkston on January 1, 1900.

Classic, a town on the west bank of Holmes Harbor, Whidby Island, in Island County. It was founded in 1911 by B. B. Daniels, who sought a name that would mean "beautiful," "well located." (Virgil A. Wilson, in Names MSS., Letter 33.)

Clear Lake, south of Medical Lake in Spokane County. It was named by W. F. Bassett on account of the great clearness of its water. (H. S. Bassett, Harrington, Lincoln County, in Names MSS., Letter 327.)

Clearlake, a town in Skagit County. The site was first settled by Robert Pringle. In 1890, when the railroad arrived, Jacob Barth platted the townsite. It was first named "Mountain View," but was changed to Clearlake after a nearby body of water known as Clear Lake. (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 210.)

Clear View, a town that was projected in Spokane County but did not survive the free-excursion-lot-selling scheme. (Postmaster, Medical Lake, in Names MSS., Letter 248.)

Clearwater, a town in Jefferson County, named after a creek of the same name. The creek is a tributary of the Queets River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Cle Elum, a town in Kittitas County. The United States Postal Guide, Geographic Board and Land office maps give the name in two words. Many other maps, however, show the name as Clealum. The lake and river of the same name have been called "Kleallum" Lake and "Samahma" River. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 210 and 382.) James Tilton's Map of Part of Washington Territory, 1859, shows "Kleattam" Lake. (United States Public Documents, Serial Number 1026.) The several forms of the Indian word are said to mean "swift waters."

Cleman Mountains, in Yakima County. They were named after John Clemans, an old settler. (Mr. Benton, Postmaster, Nile, in Names MSS., Letter 306.)

Clements Reef, north of Sucia Islands, San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Cliff Island, one of the seven Wasp Islands northwest of Shaw Island in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1860.

Cliff Point, on the lower Columbia River, in Pacific County, The land is high and steep to the water's edge. (H. B. Settem, Knappton, in Names MSS., Letter 83.)

Cliffs, a railroad station on the bank of the Columbia River, in Klickitat County. Named after a succession of cliffs in that vicinity. (L. C. Oilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)

Cline, a town on the Colville River, in Stevens County. It was named in honor of John James Orlando Cline, who for twenty years was agent of the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway at Springdale. (Jerry Cooney, Springdale, in Names MSS., Letter 89.)

Clinton, a town on Whidby Island, in Island County. Edward C. Hinman built a hotel in 1885 and soon thereafter made arrangements to sell wood to passing steamers. Settlers came to patronize the steamers and a town was begun. Two miles away John G. Phinney had been employing wood cutters and kept a little store for their benefit. He also had a post office. When the new place developed he consented to the removal of the post office. For a number of years it was known as "Phinney," but was then changed to its present name. (Names MSS., Letter 344.)

Clipper, a town in Whatcom County. It was named in 1900 after the Clipper Shingle Company. (J. P. Peterson, in Names MSS., Letter 199.)

Clisseet, an Indian village on the Makah Indian Reservation, in Clallam County. The name sounds like the one suggested for Cape Flattery. It appears on Kroll's map of Clallam County.

Cloquallum Creek, rising in the southwestern corner of Mason County, it crosses into Grays Harbor County, and empties into the Chehalis River near Elma. That it is an old Indian name is shown by the record made by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, as follows: "the old chief joined the party and they all proceeded down to the river to the point where the Kluckullum enters the Chickeeles, where they halted." (Narrative, Volume V., page 126.)

Clover Creek, a small stream that empties into Steilacoom Lake, Pierce County. It was named by Christopher Mahon, an old soldier who had served under General Scott. He took up a government claim one mile square and because wild clover was so abundant along the creek he gave that name. (Clara G. Lindsly, Spanaway, in Names MSS., Letter 254.)

Cochenawga River, see Okanogan River.

Coeur d'Alene. This is an Indian name for a lake and a city. It is mentioned here because in early days the river which drains the lake was called "Coeur d'Alene River" until joined by the "Little Spokane River," after which the combined waters had the name of Spokane River. The last name is now used from the lake throughout its length. The French term means "awl-heart" or "sharp-hearted." Some claim the traders applied it to the shrewd Indians and others say the Indians applied it first to the grasping traders.

Cohassett, a town in Grays Harbor County. It was named about 1892 by John Wooding, a banker of Aberdeen, Washington, in memory of a pleasant visit he had paid to the summer resort of Cohassett, Massachusetts. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 461.) The officials of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company have undertaken to change the name of Ashby in Kittitas County to Cohassett, after the same eastern city. It is not likely that the post office authorities will approve two such names in the same state.

Colby, a town in Kitsap County. About 1884 some lumps of coal were found along a small creek. This gave rise to the local name "Coal Bay," which was later shortened to Colby. (Joseph S. Grant, Colby, in Names MSS., Letter 2.)

Coldcreek, a town in Benton County. On some maps Cold Creek is shown as a branch of Rattlesnake Creek and on others both creeks go by the name of Cold Creek. The Indians named the creek from its cold springs. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 388.)

Cole Point, the southeast cape of Anderson Island in Pierce County. It was named by R. M. Inskip, 1846, on the British Admiralty Chart 1947, in honor of Edmund P. Cole, master on the Fisgard.

Colletta, a town in the southern part of Grant County. It was named by Mike Rohlinger in honor of his daughter, Colletta. (Robert N. Getty, Smyrna, in Names MSS., Letter 63.)

Colfax, a town in Whitman County. N. W. Durham makes the following statement: "James A. Perkins, J. H. Logsden and Mr. Lucas, a committee authorized by the Legislature to locate the county seat of the new county of Whitman, reported in February, 1872, that they had selected the Forks of the Palouse. The lands were still un-surveyed, but a town was platted and called Colfax, in honor of the vice-president of the United States." (Spokane and the Inland Empire, page 630.)

College Place, a town in Walla Walla. It was named about 1892 on account of growing up about a college established there by the Seventh Day Adventists. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 182.)

Colseed, see Quilcene Bay.

Collins, a post office in Skamania County and known sometimes as Collins Hot Springs. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)

Columbia. This is the most abundantly used geographic name in America. Aside from the beauty of the word, its history reflects efforts to honor the achievements of Christopher Columbus. Its greatest use in the Pacific Northwest is as the name of the great river. Captain Robert Gray, in the American vessel Columbia, on May 11, 1792, at 8 a.m., sailed through the breakers and at 1 p.m. anchored in the river ten miles from its mouth. On May 19, Captain Gray gave his ship's name to the river. (United States Public Documents, Serial Number 351, House of Representative Documents 101.) This was the American discovery and naming of the river. Prior to this, the river's existence had been suspected and other names had been suggested. In 1766-1767, Jonathan Carver, while exploring among the Indians of Minnesota, wrote about a great river of the west and called it "Oregon," a beautiful word which he is now believed to have coined. In 1775, Bruno Heceta, Spanish explorer, noted the indications of a river there. He called the entrance "Bahia de la Asuncion," the Northern Cape "San Roque" and the southern point "Cabo Frondoso." Later Spanish charts showed the entrance as "Ensenada de Heceta" and the surmised river as "San Roque." In 1778, John Meares, English explorer and fur trader, sought for and denied the existence of the Spanish River "Saint Roc." He called the Spaniard's "San Roque" Cape Disappointment and the entrance he changed from "Bahia de la Asuncion" or "Ensenada de Heceta" to "Deception Bay." That was the situation when Captain Gray made his discovery. In 1793, Alexander Mackenzie, of the North-West Company of Montreal, made his memorable journey to the western coast. He came upon a large river which he said the Indians called "Tacootche-Tesse." This afterwards turned out to be the Fraser River, but for a time it was confused with the Columbia. Captain Meriwether Lewis mapped it as a northern branch of the Columbia, spelling it "Tacoutche." William Cullen Bryant in his great poem Thanatopsis (1812) revived and gave wide circulation to "Oregon" as the name of the river. Another literary name was "Great River of the West," which, of course, did not disturb Columbia as a geographic term. There are a number of other geographic uses of the word in the state of Washington; in fact, when the bill was introduced into Congress to create the new territory it bore the name "Territory of Columbia." This was changed to Washington during the debate in the House of Representatives, February, 1853.

Columbia, now a sub-station of the Seattle post office in King County, was established about 1890 as an independent town. The promoters, Bowman & Rochester, made it known by one line of advertising: "Columbia, Watch It Grow!" The name was here taken from the pet-name of the Nation rather than from that of the river. An effort was once made to change the name of Vancouver, Clarke County, to "Columbia City."

Columbia Center. A town was platted under this name in Garfield County by T. G. Bean and Andrew Blackman on December 26, 1877. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 548.)

Columbia County, created on November 11, 1875, and named for the great river. The Governor had vetoed a bill to create a county bearing the name of "Ping," after Elisha Ping, a member of the Territorial Council. A new bill avoiding the Governor's objections was hastily passed and approved. Among other changes, was that of name from "Ping" to Columbia. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 292.)

Columbia Falls, one of the obstructions in the Columbia River usually referred to as The Dalles. Alexander Ross, 1811-1813, wrote: "we arrived at the falls, the great Columbia Falls, as they are generally called." (Oregon Settlers, page 132.)

Columbia River, a town in the southeastern corner of Douglas County. It is on the bank of the river from which its name is derived.

Columbia Valley. This name, used over a vast area, was first applied by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1803-1806, while near the present Kalama. They say: "which we call Columbia or Wappa-too Valley from that root or plants growing spontaneously in this valley only." (Thwaites, Original Explorations of Lewis and Clark Expedition, Volume III., page 202.)

Columbus, a town on the Columbia River, in Klickitat County. It is an old settlement and was evidently named after Christopher Columbus, als othe indirect source of the great river's name.

Colville, a city in Stevens County. The name is derived from that of Andrew Colville, who succeeded Sir John Henry Pelly as Governor in London of the Hudson's Bay Company. The name is sometimes spelled "Colvile." John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, indicates the actual beginning dates of old Fort Colville as Thursday, September 1, 1825, and Thursday, April 13, 1826. (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V., pages 113 and 284.) On the first date men were cutting timbers and on the second were departing from Spokane House to establish the new place near Kettle Falls which was later to receive the name of Fort Colville. It became one of the important trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. A few miles to the east, the United States established a little fort in command of Major Pinkney Lougenbeel, and in his honor the place was called "Pinkney City." Close by was a small settlement known as Colville. When Stevens County was organized, the name of "Pink

Colville Island, at southeast end of Lopez Island, in San Juan County. It appears first on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Colville Lake, near Sprague, on the boundary between Adams and Lincoln Counties. The railroad surveyors called it by the Indian name "Silkatkwu." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 216.)

Colville River, in Stevens County. At first it was called "Mill Creek" or "Mill River" because the Hudson's Bay Company built a mill there. (Jacob A. Meyers, in Names MSS., Letter 86.) In the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, and the Pacific Railroad Surveys, 1853, it is called "Mill Creek" or "Shawntehus." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XL, Part II, Chart 3.) Later, the word Colville becoming familiar in that section, was applied also as the name of the river.

Colvos, a small settlement on the west shore of Vashon Island in King County. Its name was derived from that of Colvos Passage, between Vashon Island and the mainland.

Colvos Passage, between Vashon Island and the mainland, forming the boundary between King and Kitsap Counties. George W. Colvocoressis was a Passed Midshipman in the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, crews. His name being too long for geographical honors was abbreviated and applied as above by Captain Wilkes.

Colvos Rocks, north of the entrance to Port Ludlow, in Jefferson County. The name was given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Passed Midshipman George W. Colvocoressis of the crew.

Commencement Bay, now usually called Tacoma Harbor, in Pierce County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. Lieutenant-Commandant Cadwalader Ringgold of the United States brig Porpoise undertook to survey Admiralty Inlet from The Narrows. The record says: "On the 15th of May [1841] the Porpoise left Nisqually, and anchored the first night near the point where the surveys were to begin, but outside of the Narrows. The first bay at the bottom of Admiralty Sound was termed Commencement Bay." (Narrative, Volume IV., page 479.)

Conconully, the name of a tiny lake, a creek and a town in Okanogan County. Rev. Myron Eells says the word is a corruption of the Indian word meaning "cloudy" and was applied to a branch of the Salmon River. The Indian name for the valley where Conconully is located was Sklow Ouliman, meaning "money hole" because a hunter could get a beaver there any day and use it as money at the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Okanogan. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) George Gibbs, an earlier authority, says a tribe lived on a creek by the name of themselves, "konekonl'p." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 412.) Local authorities say the ozifUiul name was Ctruzimuij m .itzrrr m i: jszh. in ' .pur. it jjaggua letters. It mean 'money hole" because the basin now occupied by the government reservoir was a great beaver ground, and beaver skins were money at the old trading post. (C. H. Lovejoy to Frank Putnam, in Names MSS., Letter 345.)

Concord, see Clarkston.

Concrete, a town in Skagit County. The site was first settled upon in 1888 by Richard Challanger. In 1892, a post office was secured and the name "Baker" applied, as it was at the junction of the Baker and Skagit Rivers. In June, 1905, the first steps were taken to organize there the important cement industry. On account of this industry the appropriate name of Concrete has replaced that of "Baker."

Cone Hill, see Eagle Cliff.
Cone Islands, east of Cypress Island, in San Juan County. The name was given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841.

Connelly, a settlement in Spokane County near Four Lakes. It was named after Ed. Connelly thirty or forty years ago. (C. Selvidge, Four Lakes, in Names MSS., Letter 168.)

Connell, a town in Franklin County. The main line of the Northern Pacific Railway is here crossed by a branch, which has given increased importance to Connell in recent years.

Conway, a town in Skagit County. Thomas P. Jones and Charles Villeneure settled on the site in 1873. The Great Northern Railway built a line through there in 1891 and Mr. Jones platted the town. (History of Skagit and Snohomizh Counties, pages 245-246.)

Cook, a boat-landing and town on the Columbia River, in Skamania County. It was named by S. R. Harris, first postmaster, in 1908, in honor of Charles A. Cook, who homesteaded the tract on which the townsite is located. (Laura J. Wallace, in Names MSS., Letter 315.)

Cook Point, at the entrance to Hammersley Inlet, in Mason County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, but is apparently omitted as a name from more recent charts.

Coolidge, a town on the Columbia River, in Benton County. It was named by recent promoters of the townsite. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)

Copalis, a town at the mouth of the river by the same name in Grays Harbor County, eighteen miles north of Grays -Harbor. The name is from a Salish tribe of Indians who lived on the banks of the river. Lewis and Clark, 1803-1806, called the tribe "Pailsh." (Handbook of American Indians, Volume I., page 343.)

Coppei, A town once flouished on the creek by this name in Walla Walla County. It was founded by Anderson Cox, a pioneer who came to Oregon in 1845. In 1861 he became one of the pioneers in the Inland Empire. His new town got a post office in January, 1863, and Luke Henshaw was the first postmaster. In 1865 Cox and others moved from Coppei to the new and thriving town of Waitsburg in the same vicinity. (Elwood Evans, History of the Pacific Northwest, Volume II., page 289.) The Stevens railroad map shows the creek's name as "Kap-y-o." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XII, Book 1.)

Cora, a former post office near Lewis in Lewis County, which was discontinued in 1907. (Walter Combs, Lewis, in Names MSS., Letter 150.)

Corbaley Canyon, at Orondo, in western part of Douglas County. In 1883, Piatt M. Corbaley settled at the head of the canyon and in 1884 J. B. Smith settled at its foot. In 1885 the latter circulated a petition for a road down what he called Corbaley Canyon. The County Commissioners adopted that name, which has since become well known. (J. B. Smith, Orondo, in Names MSS., Letter 95.)

Corfu, a town in Grant County. The name was probably imported from Greece by the officers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. (H. R. Williams, in Names MSS., Letter 530.)

Cormorant Passage, between Ketron Island and the mainland, in Pierce County. It was named by R. M. Inskip, 1846, as shown on the British Admiralty Chart 1947 bearing his name. The name was given in honor of Her Majesty's paddle-sloop Cormorant, Commander G. T. Gordon. She was on the Northwest station from 1844 to 1850, being the first naval steam vessel in these waters. (Captain John T. Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names, page 113.)

Cornet, a town on a bay of the same name on Whidby Island, near Deception Pass, in Island County. John Cornet, with his Indian wife, settled there in the early sixties. In 1876 he was accidentally shot while traveling in his canoe. (Fred H. Finsen, in Names MSS., Letter 763.

Cosmopolis, a city at the head of Grays Harbor, in Grays Harbor County. It is quite clear that the early settlers desired to impress the idea of having a future seaport of the world at that place by choosing such an old Greek name. However, there are local traditions that the name came from that of an old Indian chief. (Charles L. McKeloey, in Names MSS., Letter 474.)

Cottonwood Island, in the Columbia River, near the mouth of Cowlitz River, in Cowlitz County. It was named "Kanem" Island by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, but on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6153 it is shown by the present name, taken no doubt from the bundance of cottonwood trees. The Indian name Kanem means "canoe."

Cottonwood Point. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gave this name to the eastern extremity of Puget Island in the Columbia River. That name does not appear on recent charts, but river-men have been using the name for a point southeast of Washougal and southwest of Cape Horn in the Columbia River, Clarke County. It has recently been shown that this is probably the true Point Vancouver named by Broughton in 1792. (T. C. Elliott, in Oregon Historical Quarterly, Volume XVIII., pages 73-82.)

Cougar, a town in Cowlitz County. The post office was established in 1906, and of the several names submitted to the Post office Department this one of a wild animal was selected. (John Beavers, in Names MSS., Letter 201.)

Cougar Gulch, in Kittitas County. It was named by G. D. Virden, who killed a cougar there. (E. G. Powers, Liberty, in Names MSS., Letter 295.)

Coulee City, a town in Grant County. It was so named in 1889 because it is situated in Grand Coulee. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 231.)

Coulee Creek, a tributary of the Spokane River, in Spokane County. Captain George B. McClellan of the railroad surveyors called it "Helse-de-lite." His camp was there October 26 to 29, 1853. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume L, page 386.) The place has since been identified as the true site of Camp Washington, the "First Capital." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume VII., pages 3-20, 177-178 and 276-277.)

Coupeville, a city on Whidby Island, in Island County. It was founded in 1853 by Captain Thomas Coupe, whose name was given to the place. It is the seat of government of Island County.

Couse Creek, empties into the Snake River at Dodd, in Asotin County. It was so named because large quantities of course roots were gathered there by the Indians for making bread. (E. C. Lathrop, Craige, in Names MSS., Letter 287.) The Nez Perce Indian name for the plant is kowish, and from that has come "kouse" or "couse." (Handbook of American Indians, Volume I., page 729.)

Covada, a town in Ferry County. The name is a composite made by the prospectors, who took the initial letters of the following: Columbia Camp, Orin Mine, Vernie Mine, Ada Mine, Dora Mine and Alice Mine. (Postmaster, Covada, in Names MSS., Letter 437.)

Coveland, a settlement at the extreme western end of Penn's Cove, Whidby Island, in Island County. The settlement was founded by Dr. R. H. Lansdale in the early fifties.

Covello, a town in Columbia County. The settlement was first known as "Pioneer." In 1882, Wulzen & Shroeder, from San Francisco, erected a large store there. In November of that year a post office was secured and the name Covello chosen. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 273.)

Cow Creek, draining Cow Lake into the Palouse River, Adams County. The railroad surveyors of 1853 used three Indian names for the creek, "Stkahp," "Cherana" and "Cherakwa." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 216 and 387.)

Coweman River, a tributary of the Cowlitz River, near Kelso, in Cowlitz County. It was once known as "Gobar's River" from Anton Gobar, a herder in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, who occupied a small prairie on the east side of the Cowlitz River. (Olympia Transcript, April 18, 1868.) The present name is from the Indian word Ko-wee-na, which in the Cowlitz language means "short man." An Indian of short stature bore than name, and his home being in the vicinity of the river a modification of his name was given to the river. (Henry C. Sicade to John L. Harris, in Names MSS., Letter 482.)

Cowiche, a creek and town in the Yakima Valley, Yakima County. Its name is of Indian origin. The railroad surveyors of 1853 spelled it "Kwiwichess" and "Kwai-wy-chess." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume L, pages 208 and 380.)

Cowlitz Bay, on the southwest shore of Waldron Island, in San Juan County. It first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. As the locality is far removed from the region of the Cowlitz Indians, it is quite probable that this bay was named for the Hudson's Bay Company's vessel Cowlitz.

Cowlitz County, created by the Territorial Legislature on April 21, 1854. The name was taken from the tribe of Indians or the river of the same name.

Cowlitz Farm, one of the early homes of white men in Lewis County. Retired employees of the Hudson's Bay Company settled there. It is indicated on the maps of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, and also on Preston's Map of Oregon and Washington West of the Cascade Mountains, 1856. In 1858 the Legislature passed an act to locate the proposed Territorial University of Washington at that place. {University of Washington Catalogue for 1910-1911, page 37.) Cowlitz Landing, near the present location of Toledo in Lewis County. Boats were used on the Cowlitz River up to this point, from which passengers would proceed overland to Puget Sound. The name appears on early Territorial maps.

Cowlitz Pass, through the Cascade Mountains between Lewis and Yakima Counties. The Cowlitz River has its main source in a Mount Rainier Glacier of the same name. One branch of the river, however, rises near this pass, which accounts for the name.

Cowlitz River. Of all the geographic uses of the word Cowlitz, the name of the river is oldest and most important. Lewis and Clark, 1803-1806, say the Indians called the river "Coweliske." (Journal, Coues Edition, Volume II., page 698.) Subsequent writers made various attempts at spelling. Dr. W. Fraser Tolmie, 1833, wrote it "Tawallitch." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., page 233.) The word is said to mean "capturing the medicine spirit," from the fact that the young Indians of the tribe were sent to a small prairie to commune with the spirits to get "medicine" or "power." (Henry C. Sicade to John L. Harris, in Names MSS., Letter 483.) The River's early importance was its use as a highway between the Columbia River and Puget Sound.

Coyle, a town in Jefferson County, at Oak Head. Originally the place was known as "Fisherman's Harbor." In April, 1908, a post office was secured and the name was changed to honor George Coyle, a former resident. (Albert A. Gregory, in Names MSS., Letter 416.)

Craige, a town in Asotin County. In 1897, C. Thomas Craige and Charles H. Dodd got a mail route. Two new post offices developed. They sent in a hundred different names, but the Post office Department selected Craige and "Dodd." The last named has since been discontinued. (E. C. Lathrop, in Names MSS., Letter 287.) Crane Island, northwest of Shaw Island, in San Juan County. It first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.

Craven Peninsula. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, sought to bestow an honor upon their Lieutenant Thomas T. Craven by writing "Craven Peninsula" on what is now charted as Marrowstone Island. Vancouver had named the point Marrowstone in 1792 and the application of that name has been extended to the whole island. The name Craven Rock appears on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6450,, off the northeast coast of Marrowstone Island. Marrowstone Island is near Port Townsend, in Jefferson County.

Crescent, a town in the central part of Pend Oreille County. The post office was established in 1906. A number of proposed names were submitted, and the Post office Department selected this one as most suitable on account of the crescent-shaped curve of the mountains in that vicinity. (Mrs. N. H. Emery, in Names MSS., Letter 66.) There was an older settlement by the same name in the northeastern part of Lincoln County.

Crescent Bay, on the coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, west of Port Angeles, Clallam County. Elisa, 1791, and Galiano and Valdes, 1792, gave the Spanish name as "Ensenada de Villalva." The name Crescent appears first on the British Admiralty Chart 1911, Kellett, 1847. The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6300 gives the name and adds the name Crescent Rock near the entrance to the bay. The name was evidently suggested by the shape of the bay.

Crescent Harbor, east of Oak Harbor, on Whidby Island, in Island County. Dr. Richard H. Lansdale made a canoe trip from Olympia to Oak Harbor in February, 1851, and made his first location there. In the following year William H. Wallace and family settled at Crescent Harbor, which name had been bestowed by Doctor Lansdale within the year. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, had called this "Duncan's Bay" in honor of an officer in the ship Saratoga, commanded by McDonough in the War of 1812. Wilkes honored the ship by naming Saratoga Passage, and he placed the name "McDonough" on what is now known as Camano Island.

Creston, a town in Lincoln County. Local tradition has it that the Northern Pacific Railway engineers suggested the name because Brown's Butte overlooking the town on the south is the crest of the land in the Big Bend Country. It was named about 1889. (D. Frank Peffly, in Names MSS., Letter 378.)

Crocker Lake, in Jefferson County. The lake was named about 1870 and a settlement there bears the same name. (Robert E. Ryan, Sr., in Names MSS., Letter 172.)

Crocketts Lake, near the western shore of Whidby Island in Island County. It was named for the Crockett family, who were the first settlers there, in the early fifties.

Cromwell, a town on Hales Passage, in Pierce County. It was named about 1902 in honor of J. B. Cromwell, who was postmaster at Tacoma. (M. B. Kellogg, in Names MSS., Letter 420.)

Crosby, a town in the western part of Kitsap County. It was named by Mrs. Graham in 1891 after a town of that name in England. (M. A. Hoenshell, in Names MSS., Letter 552.)

Crown Creek, a tributary of the Columbia River, near Marble, Stevens County. It is supposed to have been named for a man named Crown who lived near the creek. (Joseph T. Reed, Marble, in Names MSS., Letter 125.)

Cruzatte, Lewis and Clark, 1803-1806, gave the name of one of their party to a river now known as Wind River. Near there a settlement, in Skamania County, received the name of "Cruzat," but it has since been changed to Prindle.

Cultus Bay, a shallow bay at the southern end of Whidby Island, Island County. The name is from the Chinook Jargon and means "worthless."

Cumberland, a town in King County. The coal mine there was opened in 1893 and F. X. Schriner suggested the name Cumberland after the famous Pennsylvania coal region. (J. F. Paschich, in Names MSS., Letter 198.

Curlew, a town at the mouth of Curlew Creek, a tributary of Kettle River, in Ferry County. There is also a Curlew Lake, which is drained by Curlew Creek. The Indian name was Karanips, meaning "curlew." Guy S. Helphrey named the town Curlew in June, 1896. (John P. Helphrey, in Names MSS., Letter 212.)

Curtis, a town in the western part of Lewis County. It was named for Ben Curtis, the first postmaster. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 393.)

Custer, a town in the northwestern portion of Whatcom County. There is also a settlement on Steilacoom Lake, Pierce County, by the same name. This latter name was for a settler who lived there about 1890. (Hilda Swanson, Fort Steilacoom, in Names MSS., Letter 232.)

Cypress Island, in the western portion of Skagit County. Elisa's map of 1791 shows the Spanish name as "Isla de S. Vincente" in honor of a part of the Mexican Viceroy's long name. Captain George Vancouver, the English explorer, named the island Cypress in 1792, from the trees he thought were cypress. Botanists have since declared the trees to be junipers, but Cypress Island has remained unshaken as a geographical name from the time it was first thus charted. (Vancouver, Voyage, second edition, Volume II., page 178.)

Washington AHGP | Geographic Names

Source: Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume 8 - 14


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